Sometimes second, older or wiser self Setting Based on the laws of science Moves from reader's real world to imaginary world Often set in past or future Theme Wonder and dangers of space travel Science has important effects on our lives Examination of other possible worlds, helps us better understand our own world Dystopias and Utopias Utopias are places of happiness and prosperity, the opposite being dystopias. A cross between science fiction and fantasy, these novels are usually set in the future. Technology often plays a major role in the story. Books dealing with dystopias include:
Domestic violence during pregnancy can be missed by medical professionals because it often presents in non-specific ways. A number of countries have been statistically analyzed to calculate the prevalence of this phenomenon: Physical abuse is associated with neonatal death 1.
Some studies—typically crime studies—show that men are substantially more likely than women to use violence.
In the study, almost one-quarter of participants reported some violence in their relationships. Half of these involved one-sided "non-reciprocal" attacks and half involved both assaults and counter assaults "reciprocal violence".
Women were more likely to be injured in non-reciprocal violence. For example, Straus notes that crime studies use different methodologies than family conflict studies. Men generally do not report such assaults if asked general questions about violence or abuse; older studies frequently failed to ask about specific actions, thus falling afoul of quite different cultural gender norms for what constitutes abuse.
Minor assaults perpetrated by women are also a major problem, even when they do not result in injury, because they put women in danger of much more severe retaliation by men. The study showed that male victims of IPV are very hesitant to report the violence or seek help.
Reasons given for non-reporting were they 1 may be ashamed to come forward; 2 may not be believed; and 3 may be accused of being a batterer when they do come forward.
The researchers say their findings emphasize the need for prevention on all levels: Educate public and providers that both sexes can be IPV victims Secondary prevention: First responders police, hotlines, medical professionals should take concerns seriously from all individuals including males seeking help Tertiary prevention: Rehabilitative services available to all individuals  Among LGB people[ edit ] Further information: Child abuseChild protectionand Child sexual abuse The U.
Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between and"female parents acting alone" were most common perpetrators of child abuse. Teen dating violence The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Teen dating violence is a pattern of controlling behavior by one teenager over another teenager who are in a dating relationship.
While there are many similarities to "traditional" domestic violence there are also some differences. Also, for many teens the abusive relationship may be their first dating experience and have never had a "normal" dating experience with which to compare it.
While teenagers are trying to establish their sexual identities, they are also confronting violence in their relationships and exposure to technology. Studies document that teenagers are experiencing significant amounts of dating or domestic violence.
When a broader definition of abuse that encompasses physical, sexual, and emotional abuse is used, one in three teen girls is subjected to dating abuse. Although involvement with romantic relationships is a critical aspect of adolescence, these relationships also present serious risks for teenagers.
Unfortunately, adolescents in dating relationships are at greater risk of intimate partner violence than any other age group. Approximately one third of adolescent girls are victims of physical, emotional, or verbal abuse from a dating partner.
Care is needed when using domestic violence statistics to ensure that both gender bias and under-reporting issues do not affect the inferences that are drawn from the statistics.
Some researchers, such as Michael P. Johnson, suggest that where and how domestic violence is measured also affects findings, and caution is needed to ensure statistics drawn from one class of situations are not applied to another class of situations in a way that might have fatal consequences.
Such statements should be clarified or removed. September Survey approaches to gathering domestic violence statistics have shown inconsistent results with regard to gender differences. Some surveys have shown comparable levels of violence by both men and women against partners, while other surveys have shown higher levels of violence by men.
These include the two U.
Research based on reported domestic violence or on police records show men to be the perpetrators, and women the victims, of most reported domestic violence.
However, the intervention of police may introduce a degree of gender bias into reporting. When faced with an uncertain domestic violence situation, removing one party will often defuse an altercation.
Police officers may find it easier to take action against a man. This may be due to gender expectations, reinforced by previous incidents. Some researchers have found that women are more likely to report domestic violence to police than men are.
Under-reporting[ edit ] The problem of under-reporting to police is believed to be substantial. However, estimates about how much domestic violence is not reported vary widely.Tthe future of positive thinking research is promising.
There is a large, scientifically valid body of research that indicates that optimistic people are generally better off in . argumentative essay on police brutality zombies features of argumentative essay jane eyre research proposal for a phd thesis research paper about writing borders Mary Shelley was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin in Somers Town, London, in She was the second child of the feminist philosopher, educator, and writer Mary Wollstonecraft, and the first child of the philosopher, novelist, and journalist William alphabetnyc.comonecraft died of puerperal fever shortly after Mary was born.
Godwin was left to bring up Mary, along with her older half-sister. According to the best record based study of deaths following pregnancy and abortion, a government funded study in Finland, women who abort are approximately four times more likely to die in the following year than women who carry their pregnancies to term.
Characters come mostly from lower-class families, instead of middle class homes. Settings are often harsh and difficult places to live. Earlier novels tended to be idyllic. 1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.
And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 ¶ And God said, Let there be light: 2 Cor. and there was light. 4 And God saw the light.