Unix time-sharing at the University of WisconsinThe new operating system was initially without organizational backing, and also without a name. At this stage, the new operating system was a singletasking operating system,  not a multitasking one such as Multics. The name Unics Uniplexed Information and Computing Service, pronounced as " eunuchs "a pun on Multics Multiplexed Information and Computer Serviceswas initially suggested for the project in
It achieved its reputation by its interactivity, by providing the software at a nominal fee for educational use, by running on inexpensive hardware, and by being easy to adapt and move to different machines. Unix was originally written in assembly language which had been thought necessary for system implementations on early computersbut was soon rewritten in Ca high-level programming language.
Unix had a drastically simplified file model compared to many contemporary operating systems: The file system hierarchy contained machine services and devices such as printersterminalsor disk drivesproviding a uniform interface, but at the expense of occasionally requiring additional mechanisms such as ioctl and mode flags to access features of the hardware that did not fit the simple "stream of bytes" model.
The Plan 9 operating system pushed this model even further and eliminated the need for additional mechanisms. Unix also popularized the hierarchical file system with arbitrarily nested subdirectories, originally introduced by Multics.
Other common operating systems of the era had ways to divide a storage device into multiple directories or sections, but they had a fixed number of levels, often only one level.
Several major proprietary operating systems eventually added recursive subdirectory capabilities also patterned after Multics. Making the command interpreter an ordinary user-level program, with additional commands provided as separate programs, was another Multics innovation popularized by Unix.
Since the shell and OS commands were "just another program", the user could choose or even write their own shell. New commands could be added without changing the shell itself. Many later command-line interpreters have been inspired by the Unix shell. A fundamental simplifying assumption of Unix was its focus on newline - delimited text for nearly all file formats.
The focus on text for representing nearly everything made Unix pipes especially useful, and encouraged the development of simple, general tools that could be easily combined to perform more complicated ad hoc tasks.
The focus on text and bytes made the system far more scalable and portable than other systems. Over time, text-based applications have also proven popular in application areas, such as printing languages PostScriptODFand at the application layer of the Internet protocolse. Unix popularized a syntax for regular expressions that found widespread use.
The Unix programming interface became the basis for a widely implemented operating system interface standard POSIX, see above.
The C programming language soon spread beyond Unix, and is now ubiquitous in systems and applications programming. Early Unix developers were important in bringing the concepts of modularity and reusability into software engineering practice, spawning a "software tools" movement.
Over time, the leading developers of Unix and programs that ran on it established a set of cultural norms for developing software, norms which became as important and influential as the technology of Unix itself; this has been termed the Unix philosophy.
The Unix policy of extensive on-line documentation and for many years ready access to all system source code raised programmer expectations, and contributed to the launch of the free software movement.
Free Unix and Unix-like variants[ edit ] See also: Linux distributionsconsisting of the Linux kernel and large collections of compatible software have become popular both with individual users and in business.
Linux and BSD are increasingly filling the market needs traditionally served by proprietary Unix operating systems, as well as expanding into new markets such as the consumer desktop and mobile and embedded devices.
Because of the modular design of the Unix model, sharing components is relatively common; consequently, most or all Unix and Unix-like systems include at least some BSD code, and some systems also include GNU utilities in their distributions. In a interview, Dennis Ritchie voiced his opinion that Linux and BSD operating systems are a continuation of the basis of the Unix design, and are derivatives of Unix: Linux seems to be the among the healthiest of the direct Unix derivatives, though there are also the various BSD systems as well as the more official offerings from the workstation and mainframe manufacturers.
However, Oracle discontinued the project upon their acquisition of Sun, which prompted a group of former Sun employees and members of the OpenSolaris community to fork OpenSolaris into the illumos kernel.
As ofillumos remains the only active open-source System V derivative.What is the story behind the development of the Unix operating system? Update Cancel. Answer Wiki.
11 Answers. Shobhit Pathak, Early Unix history and evolution Origins and History of Unix, History of Unix, Linux, and Open Source This is Just a short documentary and story behind development of UNIX OS.
Linux may be obtained in two different ways. All the necessary components can be downloaded free of charge from the Internet, which means an operating system can be assembled for almost nothing. The original Unix operating system was written in assembler, and the applications in a mix of assembler and an interpreted language called B, which had the virtue that it was small enough to run on the PDP The history of Unix dates back to the mids when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, AT&T Bell Labs, and General Electric were jointly developing an experimental time sharing operating system called Multics for the GE mainframe.
Multics introduced many innovations, but had many problems.. Bell Labs, frustrated by the size and complexity of Multics but not the aims, slowly pulled. Mach is a microkernel system that was designed to allow the emulation of a variety of other operating systems over it (such as various variants of UNIX).
It allows transparent access to network resources, can exploit parallelism, and . History and development of Operating Systems. Topics: Operating system, EXAMPLE OF MULTI-USER OPERATING SYSTEM The common examples of multi-user operating system' include VMS, UNIX, and mainframe operating systems which include MVS system.