It has been linked to a wide range of health issues, including mood, sleep, and appetite problems — and yes, even heart disease. Doctors don't know exactly how chronic stress affects the heart.
Organizational Growth Organizational change occurs when a company makes a transition from its current state to some desired future state. Managing organizational change is the process of planning and implementing change in organizations in such a way as to minimize employee resistance and cost to the organization while simultaneously maximizing the effectiveness of the change effort.
Factors such as globalization of markets and rapidly evolving technology force businesses to respond in order to survive.
Such changes may be relatively minor—as in the case of installing a new software program—or quite major—as in the case of refocusing an overall marketing strategy, fighting off a hostile takeover, or transforming a company in the face of persistent foreign competition.
Organizational change initiatives often arise out of problems faced by a company. In some cases, however, companies change under the impetus of enlightened leaders who first recognize and then exploit new potentials dormant in the organization or its circumstances.
Some observers, more soberly, label this a "performance gap" which able management is inspired to close.
But organizational change is also resisted and—in the opinion of its promoters—fails. The failure may be due to the manner in which change has been visualized, announced, and implemented or because internal resistance to it builds. Employees, in other words, sabotage those changes they view as antithetical to their own interests.
Daniel Wischnevsky and Fariborz Daman, for example, writing in Journal of Managerial Issues, single out strategy, structure, and organizational power.
Others add technology or the corporate population "people". All of these areas, of course, are related; companies often must institute changes in all areas when they attempt to make changes in one. The first area, strategic change, can take place on a large scale—for example, when a company shifts its resources to enter a new line of business—or on a small scale—for example, when a company makes productivity improvements in order to reduce costs.
There are three basic stages for a company making a strategic change: Technological changes are often introduced as components of larger strategic changes, although they sometimes take place on their own.
An important aspect of changing technology is determining who in the organization will be threatened by the change. Structural changes can also occur due to strategic changes—as in the case where a company decides to acquire another business and must integrate it—as well as due to operational changes or changes in managerial style.
For example, a company that wished to implement more participative decision making might need to change its hierarchical structure. Almost always people changes are the most difficult and important part of the overall change process.
The science of organization development was created to deal with changing people on the job through techniques such as education and training, team building, and career planning.
Resistance to change is normal; people cling to habits and to the status quo. To be sure, managerial actions can minimize or arouse resistance. People must be motivated to shake off old habits. This must take place in stages rather than abruptly so that "managed change" takes on the character of "natural change.
If the future after the change comes to be perceived positively, resistance will be less. Education and communication are therefore key ingredients in minimizing negative reactions. Employees can be informed about both the nature of the change and the logic behind it before it takes place through reports, memos, group presentations, or individual discussions.
Another important component of overcoming resistance is inviting employee participation and involvement in both the design and implementation phases of the change effort.
Organized forms of facilitation and support can be deployed. Managers can ensure that employees will have the resources to bring the change about; managers can make themselves available to provide explanations and to minimize stress arising in many scores of situations.
Some companies manage to overcome resistance to change through negotiation and rewards.
They offer employees concrete incentives to ensure their cooperation. Other companies resort to manipulation, or using subtle tactics such as giving a resistance leader a prominent position in the change effort. A final option is coercion, which involves punishing people who resist or using force to ensure their cooperation.
Although this method can be useful when speed is of the essence, it can have lingering negative effects on the company. Of course, no method is appropriate to every situation, and a number of different methods may be combined as needed. Key steps in that process are:When tackling a major initiative like an acquisition or an overhaul of IT systems, companies rely on large, diverse teams of highly educated specialists to get the job done.
of organizational culture and change in chapter Read The author suggests that a process of engagement, cycle, and review is one of the best ways to recognize the characteristics that define an organization. Since there’s no way to stop change from happening, make a change program successful, including opening channels of.
Remember how you felt the last time someone told you what a great job you were doing? (Really think about it, and relive that moment of glory.) That’s why it’s so important to make time to praise employees for a job well done. Work in short bursts. iStock/BraunS. The flip side to multi-tasking is that it is hard to sustain creativity or intensity on one task for long stretches.
Whether you need to boost your cash flow to pay bills, save more or simply improve your lifestyle, there are plenty of ways to make more money. The Walking College is an interactive, online educational program for walkable community advocates.
Each year, Walking College Fellowships are awarded to community change agents working alone, in organizations, or in professions such as public health, planning, transportation, or education, who.